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Articles in support of small community water and wastewater operators.

Disaster Management and Black Sky Events

Disaster Management and Black Sky Events

Coming this October, AWWA will host a webinar entitled Water Sector Black Sky Resilience. A Black Sky event is a long-duration, widespread power outage that could, in turn, cause a whole host of additional catastrophes. 

According to The Electric Infrastructure Security Council, A Black Sky event can have many causes: high magnitude earthquakes, severe space weather, electromagnetic pulses or interferences in the upper atmosphere (the kind that a nuclear detonation might cause), hurricanes, cyber-terrorism, coordinated power grid assaults and more.

Hurricane Harvey has offered a glimpse of the impact a Black Sky event would have on water and wastewater systems and the communities they serve. Black Sky events would cause much longer-term outages than the typical hazard event, and help might not come as quickly, or as easily. Back-up generators might be able to provide a certain amount of power, as long as they are in working order, but what if the treatment chemicals you depend on run out and can't be delivered to you?

Last year, the National Infrastructure Advisory Council issued a 212-page report analyzing water sector disaster scenarios and these types of cascading failures - power losses that lead to water losses and the consequences of those losses. The report concluded that this was an area that needed more analysis and planning. The report also recommends that smaller systems be provided with training as well as assistance in partnering with larger utilities that have more resources. 

Clearly, the effects of a long-term water outage on public health could be devasting, and this is why it is important to incorporate Black Sky response and recovery considerations into disaster management plans. The good news is that if you have a disaster management plan in place, you are already heading in the right direction. Using tools such as this 2016 E-Pro Handbook II (Water), you can expand your plan to include even the most severe emergencies. And this resource form the U.S. Energy Information Administration can keep you updated with live energy disruption reports across the nation. 

The USEPA also has a whole host of tools to help your utility prepare for a Black Sky event including a Power Resilience Guide for Water and Wastewater Utilities, a Drinking Water and Wastewater Utility Generator Preparedness guide, and a video entitled "Power to Keep Water Moving" (click below to view). Finally, be sure to check out the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' EPFAT tool, a secure web-based tool to input and store emergency power assessment data. Using this tool can help USACE provide temporary power faster, getting you the right generator at the right time. 

Featured Video: WARNs in Action

Featured Video: WARNs in Action
WARNs have been a valuable asset to water and wastewater utilities for several years now. In the event of an emergency---ranging from a tornado to a flood to a major main break---fellow operators can come to your aid and help your utility get back on its feet. This is accomplished through a Mutual Aid Agreement.

Mutual Aid Agreements are often misunderstood. They are not set-in-stone requirements that you must give aid, regardless of your capacity to do so. Utilities volunteer to offer aid; no one is forced. Mutual aid agreements are different from regional partnerships. This past summer, we talked about the benefits of a full-blown regional partnership, complete with shared responsibilities among operators and centralized accounting and assets. Even regional partnerships can benefit from joining WARNs, since a large-scale emergency like a flood, wildfire, hurricane, or earthquake could still decimate an entire region. But if a regional partnership isn't of interest to your utility, a mutual aid agreement is still worthwhile. Signing on to a mutual aid agreement typically does not cost money, and in many cases utilities that volunteer to help can be reimbursed.

This 3-minute video from earlier in the history of WARNs provides a general introduction to the concept. It also describes an activation of COWARN in Colorado, in response to a major water contamination event in a small rural town.

To look for a WARN in your state, learn more about the idea, or view situation reports from WARN activations around the country, see the AWWA's WARN website. To see Illinois' ILWARN flyer for small systems, go here. And if you know of a particularly good WARN and small systems story, let us know!

Featured Video: System Pressure, Fire Hydrants, and Cross Connections

Featured Video: System Pressure, Fire Hydrants, and Cross Connections
Last week, we featured two videos that went into detail on backflow and the assemblies and practices that can prevent it. This week's video deals with backflow also, but it places the topic within the broader context of distribution system maintenance at a smaller utility. It features an interview with Scott Roselle, the water and sewer lead at a utility serving a town in Michigan. In this 4-minute interview, Roselle discusses pressure districts, fire hydrant maintenance, and cross connections, including both general CCC topics and the specifics of mitigating cross connections with residential swimming pools and in commercial buildings. If you want to see how another smaller utility handles distribution challenges, check it out:

For more detail on small system distribution O&M, check out this handbook from our partners at RCAP.

Featured Videos: Backflow Prevention & Cross Connection Control from AWWA

Featured Videos: Backflow Prevention & Cross Connection Control from AWWA
No one wants to experience a backflow incident. Depending on what contaminant was involved and how much of the distribution system was affected, these incidents range from being a lot of work and expense to being a full-blown public health crisis. (See the bottom of this page to browse real backflow incidents that have occurred here in the U.S. as well as Australia and Canada.) Either way, a lot of people will have their water service disrupted and you'll have a lot of extra work on your hands until the situation is resolved.

If you're hoping to prevent a backflow incident in your community, this week's videos, courtesy of AWWA, could help. The first video explains the basics of backflow and backsiphonage and provides a brief overview air gaps and backflow prevention assemblies. The second video covers similar topics but goes more in-depth on backflow prevention assemblies, discussing the most common models, how they work, and where and how they should be installed. The first video is about 5 minutes and the second is about 7-and-a-half. 




If you'd like more training on backflow and cross connection topics, visit our event calendar and select the Backflow category and your state. If you'd like to do more reading on your own, visit our document database and select the Backflow category and the Manuals/Handbooks document type.

Repairing a Live Water Main

Get out your waders, ladders, clamps and sleeves! There’s nothing quite like the excitement of repairing a water main under pressure – and nothing quite like the kind of water operator who willingly climbs into a deep hole filled with water and mud in all types of weather.

According to Colorado Springs Utilities, there is no shortage of these opportunities: more than 240,000 water main breaks occur each year in the United States, and each one has its unique challenges. But for many of these breaks, you don't need to turn off the water.

Why? Well it goes without saying that repair work should be performed, if at all possible, without interrupting service to customers. Moreover, maintaining positive pressure in the line helps the utility avoid water quality concerns, further service failures caused by valve closures and the need for additional monitoring/sampling. 

Finally, doing live repairs means the utility does not have to issue a boil order notice, which can affect customer confidence and add additional incident reporting/paperwork requirements.  

So, when done safely and correctly, live water main repairs not only make sense for everyone, but also provide a bit of excitement in the work week! 

Need a step-by-step breakdown on the process? Check out this video from the Village of Downers Grove, IL: How to Repair A Water Main Break in 8 Easy Steps

Need help figuring out exactly how to approach a live water main repair? Check out this No Disruption Repair Decision Support Tool from the Water Research Foundation. 

And, for your viewing pleasure, here are a selection of YouTube videos of recent live water main repairs: 

  • This video provides guidance for strategic foot placement during a live water main repair.
  •  And this video offer proof of how quickly the repair can be made!
  • And this video shows an example of a water main break you will hope to never see in person!

 

Featured Video: Secure Your Utility

For the last two weeks, we've been talking about sharing the value of water and the reality of hidden infrastructure with your community. These are vital points that will help your community understand where their money goes and the importance of the work you do every day. However, there may be some individuals in your community that you wish understood a bit more about the value of water and a bit less about hidden infrastructure. Vandalism, break-ins, and other security breaches can be a nuisance at best and a public health hazard at worst. Utilities of all sizes in all kinds of communities deal with these issues, but the far-flung nature of rural utilities can make them particularly vulnerable.

So what can you do? This week's video offers some suggestions. It presents a case study of an Arizona utility that took several measures to deal with security issues. Though the utility highlighted is large, many of their practices may work for smaller utilities as well.



You can view a PDF of the handbook mentioned in the video, or use the other navigation and access options offered on the USEPA website. You might also be interested in this top 10 list of water security and emergency preparedness procedures for small groundwater utilities (also a PDF).

Featured Videos: The House on Wade Avenue

Last week, our featured video discussed the value of water. Hidden infrastructure is often a factor in how people value their water utility. Distribution and collection systems and treatment plants are usually tucked out of the way, and out of sight for many people is out of mind. Sometimes though, the obscurity of the infrastructure can be its own story, as in the case of this mysterious house on Wade Avenue in Raleigh, North Carolina. See if you can guess its secret, and once you know the answer, challenge your customers to guess too!



For more public education resources, check the Public Education category on this blog. Or, for a more in-depth discussion of public education and water infrastructure, check out this hour-long webinar recording from the Environmental Finance Center at UNC-Chapel Hill.

Featured Videos: Put Water First

Summer is a time when water sources are on a lot of customers' minds. Whether they're buying bottled water from the store or making sun tea with water from the tap, chances are the value of drinking water is particularly clear to them. If you'd like to advocate for the value of your drinking water utility, this week's featured video could help.

Heather Himmelberger, director of the Southwest Environmental Finance Center, gave this talk a few years ago at TEDxABQ. TEDx events are independently organized TED-like conferences intended to help communities spark conversation and connection. Heather speaks about the incredibly reasonable price of tap water, and discusses the expenses that could face the industry in the future. The video can provide an accessible introduction to these topics for your customers.


To see more on the topic of the value of water, check out the Value of Water category here on this blog. Or type "value of water" (minus the quote marks) into the keyword search field of our document database, then click Retrieve Documents.

Contracting a Certified Water Operator

Many small systems across the nation depend on the services of a circuit rider, also known as a contract operator. In fact, according to this article by Lori Moore, Compliance Specialist at Colorado Department of Public Health, contract operators make up an incredible 33 percent of the total number of certified water professionals who supervise public systems!

Contract operators can help ensure regulatory compliance for less complex systems that do not need a full-time operator, they can respond to emergencies, attend sanitary surveys or help fill-in when a full-time operator cannot be found in the area. 

Whatever the reason, it is important to know how to select a contract operator, and then once selected, how to communicate effectively with them. The Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection has recently published such a guide, outlining the responsibilities of both the responsible official/owner and the certified water operator. The guide also includes a contract operator interview tool and topics for developing terms of a contract.

Pennsylvania isn't the only state offering guidelines for developing a contract. For example, here is Vermont’s Department of Environmental Conservation list of suggested information and requirements to include and the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency has it's own guide as well. Many states also offer lists of current certified contract operators, like this one

Once selected, communication with the operator is key to developing a successful relationship. Because the work contract operators do is immensely valuable, especially these days, establishing clear expectations can go a long way for everyone involved. 

Featured Video: After the Storm

If your utility is in an area that gets storms with heavy rain, you may be aware of the affect stormwater can have on water quality. Even if your area is usually dry, a sudden storm can rinse all of the oil spills, dog poop, and dust that have accumulated in the yards and streets of your community right into the nearest surface water body. Depending on the community you live in, industrial sites and large farming operations can also have an impact on stormwater quality.

This 20-minute video from the USEPA discusses how stormwater and watershed factors can affect water quality in your community. It also highlights communities that face stormwater quality challenges, and possible solutions to those issues.


If you want to see more presentations from communities dealing with stormwater issues, visit our document database and set the filters to the Stormwater category and the Presentations/Slides type. Then click Retrieve Documents. You might also be interested in these sourcewater protection resources from the USEPA. Dealing with stormwater quality can sometimes be a big project, but the benefits to your community's quality of life and public health are worth the effort.

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